New and large markets for antibiotics use
In addition to the large an growing markets for new antibiotics against various accute infectious diseases, there are new indications. In vitro and preclinical animal models indicate that bacteria in the tumour-associated microbiota have a role in cancer development, metastasis, immunosurveillance and chemoresistance [Galeano Niño et al. Nature 611:810–817 (2022)] and there is strong molecular evidence of an intratumoural microbiota across at least 33 major cancer types.
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to significantly prevent gastric cancer [Yan et al. Gastroenterology 163:154-162 (2022)]. Approximately 4.4 billion people are estimated to carry this infection [Hooi et al., Gastroenterology 153:420-429 (2017)]. There are methods for raid diagnosis which can tell symtomfree young adults if they carry H. pylori and which antibiotic to use to remove this pathogen which is the first bacterium which is characterized as an oncogen. Due to the increasing prevalence of resistance to present therapies [Boyanova et al., antibiotics 12:332 (2023)], H. pylori infections constitute a large market for new antibiotics, used as cancer prophylaxis.
Other studies indicate that the cronic presence of microbes in periferal organs modulate neurodegeneration and antibiotics could be new possibilities to treat/prevent/delay e.g. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease [Landry and Embers, NeuroSci 3:262-283 (2022); Augustin et al., Frontiers in Medicine 6:188 (2019)].
Figure (click to enlarge) Prevalence of Helicobacter pyroli infections.